Solid wood furniture: 3 typical mechanical ingredients "craft" and "equipment" P
- Release on:2020-06-01
In the production process of solid wood furniture, the production of parts usually starts with the ingredients, and the sawn timber is cut into wool of a certain size through the ingredients.
Ingredients are the process of sawing lumber into wools of various specifications and shapes according to the size, specification and quality requirements of product parts. Therefore, ingredients are an important front stage of solid wood furniture production, which directly affects product quality, material utilization, labor productivity, product cost and economic benefits.
When mixing ingredients, the key is to select materials reasonably according to the quality requirements of solid wood furniture products, grasp the requirements for wood moisture content, and reasonably determine the processing allowance;
Proper selection of batching methods and processing methods to maximize the wool yield. According to the type of solid wood furniture products and the scale of enterprises, the batching section of domestic solid wood panels can be divided into artificial semi-mechanical batching, mechanical automatic batching and mechanical intelligent batching, etc.3A typical way.
Artificial semi-mechanical ingredients
The artificial semi-mechanical ingredients are to use ordinary woodworking machinery to perform cross-cutting and then longitudinal solution on the solid wood sawn timber, or longitudinal solution and then cross-section, or scribing and then sawing, or rough planing and then sawing, or rough planing.—Saw cutting—Glue Scraping and sawing and other processing ingredients.
First dissolve the ingredients horizontally and then longitudinally
First use ordinary cross-cut saw (see picture1) The solid wood sawn timber is cross-cut into short boards according to the length and quality requirements of the parts, and the defective parts that do not meet the technical requirements such as cracking, decay, dead joints, etc. are cut off, and then a single saw blade is used (see figure2a) Or multi-blade longitudinal solution circular saw (see photo2bMulti-piece longitudinal solution circular saw, figure2cMulti-piece longitudinal solution circular saw of the lower shaft, picture2dThe upper and lower biaxial multi-piece longitudinal solution circular saw), or small band saw (see figure3) Longitudinal solution of short board into wool.
The advantage of this process is that the long material is cut into short boards first, which is convenient for transportation in the workshop; the long and short wool can be matched with the saw to make full use of the length of the raw material, so that the long material is not short.
First vertical solution and then cross-section ingredients
Use a single saw blade or more Saw blade longitudinal solution circular saw (see picture2) The solid wood sawn timber is longitudinally cut into slats according to the width or thickness of the part, and then a common cross-cut saw is used according to the length of the part (see figure1) Cut it into wool and cut off the defective part at the same time.
This process is suitable for the preparation of wool of the same width or thickness.
Scratch the ingredients before cutting
According to the specifications, shape and quality requirements of the parts, the lines are drawn on the board surface according to the set method, and then the lines are cut into wool. Using a set of cutting lines and a lower saw can produce the largest amount of wool with the same number of plates.
Production practice has proved that this method can improve the wood output rate9%, Especially for curved parts, pre-scribe lines, and then use a small band saw or joinery band saw (see figure3) Saw cutting ingredients can not only ensure the quality of wool, but also improve the output rate and productivity. There are two types of marking ingredients: parallel marking method and cross marking method.
First rough plan and then saw the ingredients
First, the sheet is processed by single-sided or double-sided planing, and then cross-sectioned or longitudinally broken into wool. Because the surface of the board is rough planed first, the defects, texture and color of the material surface can be clearly revealed, the operator can accurately see the material under the saw, according to the distribution of defects, texture shape and color degree Select materials and ingredients, and remove unsuitable parts in time.
Rough first—Saw cutting—Saw cutting and cutting
After planing, sawing and removing defects, the plates are jointed and lengthened in the length, width and thickness directions by finger jointing and flat joining, respectively, to make a panel or laminated wood (glulam), and then Saw into wool.
This process can make full use of materials, effectively improve the wool material output rate and ensure the quality of parts.
Mechanical automatic batching
Mechanical automatic batching is an automation for industrial production The ingredients method mainly uses the following two methods in furniture production.
Preferred cross-cut saw ingredients
According to the requirements of the width or thickness of the parts, the solid wood sawn timber is longitudinally sawed and processed into slats on a single saw blade or a multi-blade longitudinal solution circular saw machine with mechanical feed, and then mechanically or automatically fed It is preferred that the cross-cut saw automatically detect information such as the length of the slats, the position and level of defects, and perform cross-cut processing such as preferred fixed length and truncated defects.
This process is the preferred cross-cutting saw for mechanically fed longitudinal solution circular sawing machines, mechanical or automatic feeding (see figure4) Connect into a production line, and participate in the collaboration through the roller or belt transportation chain and the artificial part (such as marking the location and grade area of wood surface defects by manual marking), suitable for the preparation of large quantities of wool with the same width or the same thickness specification, high productivity.
CNC curve band saw ingredients
CNC curve band saw ingredients: mainly used to replace the traditional manual batching of small band saws or joinery band saws (see picture3), Automatic batching of CNC machine parts for curved parts, without pre-marking, but according to the computer designed sawing chart to control the feeding table (small sports car) to achieveXwithYTwo horizontal movements are used to perform CNC curve sawing processing on the sheet to prepare the wool with curvilinear specifications (see figure5), Which can significantly improve the utilization rate and production efficiency of the board, and at the same time can also guarantee the quality of the prepared wool.
Mechanical intelligent ingredients
With industry4.0And the promotion and application of intelligent manufacturing in the furniture manufacturing industry, in the production process of modern solid wood furniture, solid wood cabinets, solid wood doors and windows, with the diversification of solid wood parts modeling and mass customization methods, mechanical ingredients have also begun to Automation is developing in the direction of intelligence.
In particular, the continuous development of intelligent optimization equipment and online non-destructive testing technology can already form a production line of mechanical intelligence and optimal ingredients composed of automatic scanners, optimal saws, automatic finger jointing machines, four-sided planers, automatic high-frequency plywood machines and other equipment .
Taking the preferred wood preparation technology of a foreign solid wood machinery manufacturer as an example, its typical batching process and equipment It mainly includes the following parts:
Using fully automatic scanner (see picture6) Scanning of raw material sheets, also known as vertical solution scanning.
First, scan the board with a fully automatic scanner to detect the size information of the whole board and scan the surface defects of the board (such as knots, cracks, skinning, etc.) Position, and then the scanner will formulate the best sawing solution for each plate according to the length, width, and grade requirements of the parts to be processed by the factory, so as to realize the maximum value of multi-chip sawing.
First dissolve the ingredients horizontally and then longitudinally
Use the preferred multi-blade saw with mobile saw blade technology (see photo7) The width of the plate is divided or sawn into slats. According to the width dimension and grade of the raw material plate, combined with the width dimension and grade of the slat to be processed, each plate is preferably sawed in the width direction.
The device can be connected with the above-mentioned vertical solution scanner to realize a highly automated preferred vertical solution. The longitudinal solution scanner located upstream transmits the best sawing solution for each plate to the preferred multi-blade saw, and the front-end positioning device of the preferred multi-blade saw automatically positions and feeds the plate, while moving the saw blade to the corresponding position according to the scanner instructions Carry out sawing to realize high-speed, efficient and high-value sawing of each plate.
A full-automatic scanner is used to scan the slat after fixed width on four sides, also known as cross-scan. The fixed-width slats after being dismantled by multiple saws are automatically transferred to the cross-sectional scanner station through a conveyor. The automatic scanner scans and detects the four sides of the fixed-width slats to detect the size information of each slats and Scan the position of the surface defects of the slats (such as knots, cracks, skins, etc.), and then combine the scanner with the length, size and grade requirements of the parts to be processed by the factory. Optimize the calculation and formulate the best cross-sectional plan for each slat, Achieve maximum value of cross-section processing.
Fixed length cross section
Use the preferred cross-cut saw (see photo8) The slat is optimized, fixed-length cross-section and defect removal. Preferably, the cross-cutting saw can be connected with the upstream cross-sectional scanner to realize a highly automated cross-cutting sawing production line.
The upstream cross-sectional scanner automatically detects the length, defect position and grade of each slat, and transmits the best sawing plan optimized for each slat to the preferred cross-saw;
At the same time, the sawing station where the corresponding slats are transported by the transfer device, preferably the cross-cut saw, automatically positions, cuts and sorts the slats according to the instructions of the scanner to achieve the maximum value of cross-cutting processing for each slats.
Finger joint length
Use automatic finger jointing machine (see picture9) Finger and tenon processing and lengthening processing are carried out on the cut slats. Through finger tenon milling machine, finger glue application machine, splicing machine, etc., it can carry out automatic tooth milling, automatic finger tenon coating, automatic splicing and automatic fixed length cutting, which can greatly improve the utilization rate of materials and finger splicing Production efficiency.
Use double-sided planer (flat planer) or four-sided planer (See picture10) And other automatic feeding and planing equipment, rough surface processing of solid wood sawn timber, or long slat joints, in order to reasonably obtain high-quality wool.
Adopt fully automatic high-frequency puzzle machine (see picture11) Glue the width of the slats after the finger joint length and the fixed length truncated. First, automatic glue spraying is applied to the glued surface of the lath through the glue application device of the puzzle machine, and then the blanks are automatically assembled and automatically fed into the puzzle machine for clamping and pressurization and high-frequency heating glue.
High-precision automatic glue spraying device, spraying a glue line on the glue surface of the board, the glue amount can be controlled, which saves the amount of glue and reduces the amount of glue overflow than the traditional glue application method;
At the same time, a reasonable clamping and pressing method can minimize the thickness difference of the panel, reduce the amount of sanding required, and improve the processing quality and the output rate.
Through the above main equipment, it can be combined to form different solid wood batchi